The archaeological materials have been gathered since the Museum was founded. The Department of Archaeology was founded in 1957. In the sixties of the twentieth century an intensive recording of archaeological sites started through minor archaeological research projects and through the recognition of their importance in the Brod Posavlje area. Presently conducting large preservation archaeological research activities, the Department is expanding and enriching its collections which testify to the density of population in the Brod Posavlje and offer a new insight into the material legacy of previous inhabitants of this area.
In the past 50 years, the Archaeological Department has become one of the biggest departments of the Museum. Its holdings contain around 28 400 items, among which there are some valuable items of world-wide significance.